Ocean model coupling is the connection of several separate numerical fluid dynamic models (see Ocean Modeling Explained) so that output from each model becomes input for the other models. Models exchange information at specified intervals, so that, for example, predictions about the weather affect – and are affected by – ocean surface temperature, sea surface roughness, heat flux, circulation, etc. This allows a more complete and realistic representation of ocean conditions than that available from uncoupled, stand-alone models.

Fathom Science uses coupled models to create descriptions of ocean conditions from the surface to the bottom, at the present time, in the near future, and in past decades.